SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
My publish paper review is based on Systemic Lupus Erythematous. You can feel free to read this article at http://www.jle.com/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/01/88/56/article.phtml.
Systemic Lupus Erythematous is a chronic auto immune inflammatory disease that has protean manifestations and follows a relapsing and remitting course.. This affects more woman than men and is considered one of the most dramatic, frightening and lonely terminal diseases. Lupus is neither infectious nor contagious but sadly there is no cure. It is characterized by an autoantibody response to nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens. This disease causes pain and swelling. It can affect the skin, ,joints, ,kidneys, lungs, nervous system and other organs of the body. Lupus flares vary from mild to serious.
The immune system in the body’s defense system. When healthy, it protects the body by making antibodies that attack germs and cancers. With lupus, the immune system misfires. Instead of providing protective antibodies, an autoimmune disease begins and makes “autoantibodies,” which attack the patient’s own tissues. As the attack goes on, other immune cells join the fight. This then leads to inflammation and abnormal blood vessels. These antibodies then end up in cells in organs, where they damage those tissues. People with lupus may also have an impaired process for clearing old and damaged cells from the body, which causes an abnormal immune response.
The specific cause of SLE is unknown but multiple factors are associated with the development of the disease, including genetic, epigenetic, ethnic, immunoregulatory, hormonal, and environmental factors.
T cells play a central role in SLE pathogenesis, and T cells from patients with lupus show defects in both signaling and effector function. These T cells secrete less interleukin (IL)-2, and one defect in signaling seems to be linked to an increase in calcium influx. The following seem to be adversely affected in T cells from patients with SLE: effector activity such as CD8 cytotoxicity; T-regulatory, B-cell help; migration; and adhesion. However, the method by which each of these deficits contributes to the exact clinical syndrome seen in an individual patient is still unknown.
Immune complexes form in the microvasculature, leading to complement activation and inflammation. furthermore, antibody-antigen complexes deposit on the basement membranes of skin and kidneys. In active SLE, this process has been confirmed by demonstration of complexes of nuclear antigens such as DNA, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins at these sites. Autoantibodies have been found to be biomarkers for future neuropsychiatric events in SLE. Serum antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in nearly all individuals with active SLE. Antibodies to native double-stranded DNA are relatively specific for the diagnosis of SLE.
Lupus affects most people in their 20s and 30s. it occurs more often in women than men. This disease is more common in some ethnic groups, mainly blacks and Asians, and tends to be worst in these groups. There are certain countries in which the disease appears to be more prevalent, for instance the Caribbean, the far east, and China. Ultraviolet light stimulates keratinocytes, which leads not only to overexpression of nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) on their cell surfaces but also to the secretion of cytokines that simulate increased autoantibody production. Photosensitivity is clearly a precipitant of skin disease. Silica dust and cigarette smoking may increase the risk of developing SLE. Administration of estrogen to postmenopausal women appears to increase the risk of developing SLE. Estrogen can raise the risk of blood clots. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of developing SLE.
Lupus has many symptoms. Some common ones are
- Joint pain or swelling
- Muscle pain
- Fever with no known cause
- Red rashes, often on the face (also called the “butterfly rash”)
- Kidney involvement
- Hair loss
- Abnormal blood clotting
- VANHOLDER, Raymond, Filip De Keyser, Johan Kips, Marleen Praet, and Jean-Marie Naeyaert. “European Journal of Dermatology .” John Libbey Eurotext : Éditions médicales et scientifiques France : revues, médicales, scientifiques, médecine, santé, livres. http://www.jle.com/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/01/88/56/article.phtml (accessed April 7, 2013).
- “Lupus: MedlinePlus.” National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/lupus.html (accessed April 7, 2013).
- The Voice of the Lupus Foundation (VLF) Trinidad and Tobago.